Marker M168


The very widely dispersed M168 marker can be traced to a single individual, Eurasian Adam. This African man, who lived some 31,000 to 79,000 years ago, is the common ancestor of every non-African person living today. His descendants migrated out of Africa and became the only lineage to survive away from humanity’s home continent.

Population growth during the Upper Paleolithic era may have spurred the M168 lineage to seek new hunting grounds for the plains animals crucial to their survival. A period of moist and favorable climate had expanded the ranges of such animals at this time, so these nomadic peoples may have simply followed their food source.

Improved tools and rudimentary art appeared during this same epoch, suggesting significant mental and behavioral changes. These shifts may have been spurred by a genetic mutation that gave Eurasian Adam’s descendants a cognitive advantage over other contemporary, but now extinct, human lineages.

Marker M89


Some 90 to 95 percent of all non-Africans are descendants of the second great human migration out of Africa, which is defined by the marker M89.

M89 first appeared 45,000 years ago in Northern Africa or the Middle East. It arose on the original lineage (M168) of Eurasian Adam, and defines a large inland migration of hunters who followed expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the Middle East.

Many people of this lineage remained in the Middle East, but others continued their movement and followed the grasslands through Iran to the vast steppes of Central Asia. Herds of buffalo, antelope, woolly mammoths, and other game probably enticed them to explore new grasslands.

With much of Earth’s water frozen in massive ice sheets, the era’s vast steppes stretched from eastern France to Korea. The grassland hunters of the M89 lineage traveled both east and west along this steppe superhighway and eventually peopled much of the continent.

A group of M89 descendants moved north from the Middle East to Anatolia and the Balkans, trading familiar grasslands for forests and high country. Though their numbers were likely small, genetic traces of their journey are still found today.

Marker M9


Some 40,000 years ago a man in Iran or southern Central Asia was born with a unique genetic marker known as M9, which marked a new lineage diverging from the M89 group. His descendants spent the next 30,000 years populating much of the planet.

Most residents of the Northern Hemisphere trace their roots to this unique individual, and carry his defining marker. Nearly all North Americans and East Asians have the M9 marker, as do most Europeans and many Indians. The haplogroup defined by M9, K, is known as the Eurasian Clan.

This large lineage dispersed gradually. Seasoned hunters followed the herds ever eastward, along a vast belt of Eurasian steppe, until the massive mountain ranges of south central Asia blocked their path.

The Hindu Kush, Tian Shan, and Himalaya, even more formidable during the era’s ice age, divided eastward migrations. These migrations through the Pamir Knot region would subsequently become defined by additional genetic markers.

Marker M45


The marker M45 first appeared about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago in a man who became the common ancestor of most Europeans and nearly all Native Americans. This unique individual was part of the M9 lineage, which was moving to the north of the mountainous Hindu Kush and onto the game-rich steppes of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and southern Siberia.

The M45 lineage survived on these northern steppes even in the frigid Ice Age climate. While big game was plentiful, these resourceful hunters had to adapt their behavior to an increasingly hostile environment. They erected animal skin shelters and sewed weathertight clothing. They also refined the flint heads on their weapons to compensate for the scarcity of obsidian and other materials.

The intelligence that allowed this lineage to adapt and thrive in harsh conditions was critical to human survival in a region where no other hominids are known to have survived.

Marker M242

M242 – Haplogroup Q

Haplogroup Q, defined by marker M242, appeared on the M45 lineage and includes most Native Americans. Its origin lies in Siberia some 15,000 to 20,000 years ago—during the savagely cold climate of that period.

The adaptable descendants of M242 survived by hunting large mammals and inventing cold-weather living techniques still employed by their modern Arctic descendents. They developed new shelters, new types of clothing, and new tools for an increasingly challenging environment.

In the ice-free regions of Siberia these people sat poised to enter a new world. About 15,000 years ago they did just that. With much of Earth’s water locked up in ice sheets, period sea levels were some 350 feet (100 meters) lower than at present. Consequently a land mass called Beringia connected present-day Siberia and Alaska and provided a crossing for the peopling of the Americas.

The genetic data coincide with archaeological evidence for a Beringia crossing that enabled North American settlement only after about 15,000 years ago.

Somehow the progeny of M242 migrated further south through the Americas. Just how they gained passage through the era’s prevalent ice cover is unknown. Some speculate that an ice-free Rocky Mountain corridor allowed safe travel, while others favor a hypothesis of coastal migration.

Whatever their route out of modern Alaska, the descendents of M242 were the first explorers of the New World.

Marker M242-Haplogroup Q

The Entire Migration – not quite

And that’s the whole journey…or what’s known so far.

I wonder, what point in time does my direct line turn back and return to India?

You can explore more off this at the official site.


91 replies
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  1. Kim Dawtry
    Kim Dawtry says:

    It is odd, since posting on here I have gone back and looked at old photos of our family. I have a picture on my fireplace of my aunt and uncle (both Dawtrys) in older age. Their features are not your typical European ones, and they look very similar to the Samai, high cheekbones, wide smiles, small eyes they were also very short! I now remember when my sister was born and looked oriental, everyone was so surprised and it was a bit of a joke in our family. My daughter also looked Chinese when she was born and I notice a lot of the family have these features in infancy. They tend to look more European as they get older. Maybe there is something in it. How bizarre! What a small world we live in.

  2. TN
    TN says:

    My paternal line is Q-M242 and I’m Vietnamese. I would had thought the my paternal line would go down to Southeast Asia, so this was a little surprising.

  3. Kim Dawtry
    Kim Dawtry says:

    Hi, My Dads line is also Q-M242. He is tall, blue eyed and Nordic looking. His matches were in Norway and Iceland and a few people with either Scottish or English ancestry. I recognise a few on here from his familytreedna matches. Now, we know our family history and they were Normans. It appears that in our case, the Q-M242 came from the Vikings. The family we descend from were Barons in England and Lords in Normandy. The places in England were these matches for my Dad are turning up are in areas where they had estates. If Raknes from Nord Trondelag is on here, my Dad matched you on around 32 markers out of 37 . I think the Q in our case must have come from an ancient Siberian tribe.

  4. Dorothy Whiting
    Dorothy Whiting says:

    Have the results of my Fathers DNA. He has the Q M242 line which I am told is rare in England. Other markers include S324,M346,S324. M89,M213,M9,P128,M526,M74.

    I would be interested to know how one finds out about others from E. Anglia with similar DNA. If anyone has information I would be grateful.

  5. Chris Pineda
    Chris Pineda says:

    Just found out my line is Q-M242. We’re from Texas and our oldest y-DNA ancestor was from Zacatecas, Mexico. We’ve been able to trace back to an individual named Gregorio Pinedo, son of Bartolo Pinedo in the early 1800s or late 1700s, and we’re still hoping that the documentary record will help us go back further. Presumably, our line goes back to Spain, and I’ve read that there were one or two Pinedos in this area in the 1600s. While I’ve read that Q-M242 is common in Native Americans, I was also told that my specific line had closer matches to individuals in the middle east. So I’m not sure what to think — whether our paternal line is really native american (which seems possible) or middle eastern.

  6. R Paine
    R Paine says:

    Haplogroup Q is ancient; the ancestral SNP M242 defines it. There have been many newer branches of Q defined since 242. It is true that one branch colonized the Americas but other branches have migrated into India, the Middle East, and Europe.

    I have tested these markers at Ftdna. Kit#19774, Ysearch ID# YX5R3
    M242+ P36.2+ M346+ L57+ L56+ L529+ L528+ L527+ L232+
    M378- M3- M25- L55- L54- L53- L213- L191-

    I will be testing additional relevant markers when they are discovered and become available for testing.

    My ancestry is English with close Y-Dna matches in Scandinavia and distant matches in Central Asia. Our individual migration histories are much more varied than the early statements about Haplogroup Q would indicate.

  7. Reg
    Reg says:

    Hello Ash,

    Q haplogroup is found among Saraswat Brahmin, Q1aMH2 and Q1b. There is a study: Saraswat Brahmins haplotypes by Yadav et al.,2010

    Now we have also a study for Iran with some Qs (Q1b and Q1a2) among Khorasan Iranians, Lurs, Azeri and Assyrians, turkmens etc :

    “Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians”
    Viola Grugni et al.

  8. Ash
    Ash says:

    I’m Haplogroup Q……I am a Canadian male of East Indian descent. Konkani Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmin originally from the West coast of India. The only reason I did this DNA test with National Geographic was because I appear Iranian/Middle Eastern/Greek and wanted to see if I was a J2 or R1a or R1b and shared ancestry with one of those regions……ended up being a Q…what a surprise! And I’m none the wiser for the effort. There appears to be very little information on Haplogroup Q other than that it is very widespread and in very small percentages everywhere! Hope to glean more information from this and other sites 🙂

  9. Reg
    Reg says:

    Hello Ari,

    I am Q also with a paternal lineage from Morocco jews. We have a few % Q1b among north africa jews.
    You can join the family tree dna Q project or the ysearch to compare your results and the page on facebook Q ydna haplogroup.
    Q1b is not related to amerindians but rather to middle-east/central asia.

  10. John
    John says:

    I am Q M242 and trace my male ancestry to England. My first American ancestor arrived from England in 1635. His oldest children were born in England. I have compared Y-DNA with other descendants of my 1st American ancestor and they are the same Y-DNA so the Q M242 came from England. I would be interested in comparing results with others who trace their ancestry to England and have the Y-DNA Q. Send we an email at

  11. Ari
    Ari says:

    I’m also M242. My family are Moroccan Jews of mixed Spephardic origin. They moved to Israel. Nobody ever moved to the Americas in our entire lineage.

  12. Oz
    Oz says:

    I’m also M242 of Haplogroup Q. My ethnic background is Pashtun, and recent developments show that M242 is present in 16.3% of Pashtuns from Afghanistan. It is also found at lower frequencies in India and Pakistan, but as the frequency is higher among Pashtuns, I have a strong feeling it traveled to India and Pakistan via the Pashtun people’s migrations/conquests.

  13. menon
    menon says:

    To all

    Dan there seems to be a racist trying to protect European ‘purity’

    And this mutation occured 20000 years back so theres no way anyone can say he or she is Q

  14. Ariel
    Ariel says:

    I have Q M242, yet there is nothing in my family that seems connected to the new world as far as Native American. We are Sephardic Jews from North Africa whose ancestry never crossed the Atlantic. Inteersting:)

  15. Cecelia
    Cecelia says:

    Hi, My son is Q (dont have exact info in front of me). His paternal side is from India, written records are from St. Thomas, according to oral history , they are Anglo Indians. Can elarjykal and Hari s contact me. Hari S , we live in S. Califronia, Cecelia

  16. prod83wt
    prod83wt says:

    hi Joe,
    if you join the facebook group Q ydna haplogroup project, you will have all answers.
    I have just ordered a new test called Walk-thru-the-Y and am eagerly waiting for the results.

  17. Joe
    Joe says:

    Hi all. Having only minimal information as to my paternal family’s origins (French and Native American as family stories claim, though I suspected Scots-Irish because of our family’s longstanding presence in the Appalachian region of West Virginia and Kentucky), I jumped at the chance to participate in the National Geographic Genedatabase program. The results came back as Haplogroup Q Marker M242. The site offer further testing to confirm this. Is it worth pursuing? What else can it tell me? Thanks anyone who can reply.

  18. Hari S M242
    Hari S M242 says:

    I am a Tamil Iyengar Vadakalai Brahmin guy with ancestry from Thanjavur. Tamil Nadu. I came to know that I have M242 too from the National Genographic Project. My gotra is Kausika/Vishwamitra gotra. I am curious what other guys of my Gotra have in common..I live in San Francisco now..

  19. Ian Harrison
    Ian Harrison says:

    I am also a haplogroup Q and a 5th generation Australian. My ancestors for the 10 previous discoverable generations were from the Craven area in North Yorkshire England.

    There is family evidence through ancestroral memoirs that the family were originally from Denmark or elsewhere in Scandinavia.

    It is thought that their entry to Briton was during the Viking invasion and habitation of Yorkshire. many of the townships in the Nth Yorkshire region where the ancestors resided, are old Viking towns and there are many remaining areas, towns and landmarks that retain the original Viking and Scandinavian names. York, Earby etc.

  20. ArmenianQ
    ArmenianQ says:

    @ Harry – Do you know what Q you are ( Q1a or Q1b) ? I am half Armenian, from my father’s side, and I had his dna tested and he turned out to be Q (Q1a3). We are the only Q1a3’s so far that I can find. It’s very odd.

  21. rob
    rob says:

    I just recive my results and i am Q m242, i am mexican and i trace my ancestors til the begining of the 1700’s, everybody was a meztisos, means mixbreed, i am sure i am a native american, i only have a cuestion, the Y dys 19, means something??? i am 14

  22. Prod83wt
    Prod83wt says:

    Dear Chopi,
    Have you done any further tests? To what level of markers have you tested? It is quite possible that you have further interesting information hidden in your results/potential results.


  23. Q-M242
    Q-M242 says:

    I too can trace my ancestry back to England circa 17th century. Devon area actually. And I’m Q-M242. From what I’ve read, there have been a few genetic waves that have followed the major movement of peoples into the British Isles. Britons/Celts after prehistory. Romans. Vikings. Normans (who were genetically Viking). Commonwealth inflows. The Roman era was the greatest transporter of genes around Europe up until the 20th century. The provisioning of transportation infrastructure, social order, suppression of piracy, etc allowed for the maintenance of extensive int’l trade routes. People and goods flowed mostly freely across the empire. The incorporation of conquered peoples into the empire as “Romans” allowed for men from around the Mediterranean to be included in Roman military activities which included garrisoning out of the way places like what became England. It still doesn’t fully explain how exactly Siberian genes made their way to where my male ancestor left his genetic legacy. But, it provides a possible scenario for genes to leave Asia and move thousands of miles to get to England the quickest way possible. Otherwise the Viking/Norman route seems most likely.

  24. elanjykal
    elanjykal says:

    I did mention earlier that I’m looking out for families that fall into the Q1a3(M346+) group. let me give the reason.
    My brother’s result is Q1a3(m346+). Our family belongs to one of those families in Kerala, India that were baptized by St. Thomas. The Surname is Elanjykal or also spelt Elengical, Elenjikkal and other variants but if written in malayalam is all the same. Our tradition says we came to kerala from elsewhere but the location is not clear. some say from madurai and some say from north india. Our family’s patron saint is St.George. I was hoping to find other families in other parts of the country that may throw some light on our ancestory.

  25. Harmon
    Harmon says:

    DK – if you are still around – the genealogy I’m relying on is pretty solid, mainly because my father’s family arrived from England in 1637 and stayed in the same place until he became the first to leave, in 1941 as a result of WWII. In fact, the whole town was founded by 3 English families who never left once they got there. So even taking into account some interfamily hanky panky now & then, the odds are still overwhelming that the English connection is right, even if the nominal paternal line is not.

    I’ve pretty much ruled out the pre-marriage pregnancy possibility I mentioned above, by checking on the relevant birth & marriage dates.

    One possibility is that M242 wound up in Europe via the Mongol invasion. Another is that it moved along the northern reaches of Europe into England via various invasions.

  26. Kim
    Kim says:

    we are tracing my fathers DNA. We are ( we think) Dutch/French/ British Isle and were surprised to be Haplogroup Q. We are doing futher study to find out if we are Jewish? does anyone else have this possobilty?

  27. DK`
    DK` says:

    To Dan’s comment

    The Q-M242 is an Asian marker with some traces fround in Europe but it is exclusivly found in native americans in both South and North America (found 100% in tribes south of Panama). If there are traces found in Europe it only means some simply went west. But this does not make the Viking or European just because they are found there. They are still of Asian origin that happen to mixed in with Eurpeans.

    Similar to Africa “E” Hap found all over the world. Regardless of where it’s found it’s an African marker…. suggesting africans simply migrated everywhere. The southern coast of England has a high distribution of E but this does not make them English just because they are traced there. They still have an african origin.

    However i think any Qm242 (from which the Qm3 dirives from) which is found almost exclusivly in indians, appearing in European is a false premise. There’s really no proof. Sounds like bad genealogy rather then DNA.

  28. Kowarz
    Kowarz says:

    Yes , Haplgroups of a person may be difeent from the general population around him- This correlates with the established fact that In-Situ Cultural differentiation happened much later than genetic differenciation. So while somebodys HAplogroup may be Q or R1b, That Individual Can be anywhere in the world – the last 2000 years have seen a lot of cultural changes and a partial homogenizing effect,genetic isolation by bottleneck and founder efects have been undone by our constant need to migrate in search of better opportunities, and our need to mate with exotic women 😉 wars , conquest and attrition

  29. Chopi
    Chopi says:

    @Harmon, hmm that is curious, but as William mentions to, perhaps a lot of m242 did eventually reach England as well…Seems they reach the Med too via Turkey per Harry above…

    @William, there’s definitely a lot who move back west from Siberia. My assumption is that we (indian m242’s) come from the group that moves west in a southerly direction into what is now Uzbekistan, maybe during the mongol migrations/invasion westward. Then Babur who is direct descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan moves into North India and establishs the 700 yr Mughal Empire, and perhaps that’s how M242 is introduced into India. Take that for whatever it’s worth, I’m no great scholar of this, just find it completely fascinating.

  30. William Mc.
    William Mc. says:

    My father and I are both Q M242. Our family has been in America since 1740.
    We traced our family line to the Isle Of Skye in Scotland (Viking / Celtic) prior to coming to the US. Everyone in our family is fair skinned with predominantly blue eyes. We were amazed and fascinated that we originated in Siberia. We were wondering if part of Q 242 turned back west (perhaps hunting big game along the edge of the ice shelves of the time) like a branch of Q M45 did, and migrated to northern / western europe. Are there other people out there with a similar story?

  31. Harry
    Harry says:

    This is strange. I am Armenian, and as all Armenians who fled Turkey during the genocide, my paternal grandfather ended up in Ethiopia, where both my father and I were born, and my results came out as Haplogroup Q (M242).

  32. Harmon Dow
    Harmon Dow says:

    If you have any information for me, please email me at harmon, with the @ portion of the message being at

  33. Harmon Dow
    Harmon Dow says:

    Just got the results for my paternal line. Hap group Q, M242. Now, I live in the US, and the curious thing is that I have a male based family genealogy which authoritatively traces back to the 1400s in England. How does that square with that grouping?

    I’m an utter novice, but I think I see that there’s some M242 getting into Scandinavia, and thence, via the Vikings/Norman invasion, into England. Is there any merit to that supposition?

    I do have an Indian woman marrying into my paternal line early on, as a second wife. I need to doublecheck, but I’m pretty certain that I’m descended from the firstborn male of that second wife. She was a Christianized Indian. It makes me wonder if she was pregnant at the marriage – I need to see if I can nail down some dates! Could be that the father was an Indian lad.

  34. rb
    rb says:

    My father’s family emigrated from India to the Caribbean in the 1800’s. I have been trying to trace his lineage through dna testing without much success. He has also been classified Haplogroup Q, Marker M242. Would it be possible to swap sequences?

  35. Chopi
    Chopi says:

    Alfonso, That’s actually Dan, the commentor’s, as he say’s above: “I am part Native American and mostly white, and I’m R1b1c9”. Not mine.

    That’s interesting that your clan moved west as mine went east, it’s a fascinating study, makes one wonder doesn’t it, thanks for commenting.

  36. Alfonso Barrs
    Alfonso Barrs says:

    Reading responses on your Website I see that your say that your are actually R1b1c9. My projection by FTDNA is R1b1b2g1. How does Haplogroup Q fit with R1b1b2g1???

    Al Barrs
    Greenwood, Florida

  37. Alfonso Barrs
    Alfonso Barrs says:

    Good day;

    I was looking at your unbroken genetic migration map on the Internet with interest as it related to my haplogroup R migration map. My markers sequence is R1b1 M168> M89> *M9> M45> M207> M173> M343>.

    From M168 to M45 our clan’s migration route was identical. We would have been related 35,000 years ago in Central Asia. While your Q clan migrated east at M45 my R clan migrated west at M45.

    The contrast and relationship is an interesting extension of our clan’s history migration map.

    Al Barrs
    Greenwood, Florida USA

  38. Dan
    Dan says:

    I am not suprised at all. I am part Native American and mostly white, and I’m R1b1c9. Although, Q seems to be Native American this is not true… Only Q-M3 is native american and you are Q-M242 which is found all over Central Asia and Siberia, and some in Northern Europe (but not so much).


  39. menon
    menon says:

    I am haplogroup Q too (M242) just like yours. Perhaps we could swap sequences? I am Indian too and a pretty surprise it was for me that I am Q.

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